About ninety-five percent of couples will conceive after a year of trying. A fertility evaluation is recommended for those who do not conceive. Women are generally evaluated by their gynecologist. The doctor will take a history asking about child hood illnesses, surgeries, the menstrual cycle and so forth and then perform a physical examination. Then, generally, blood tests and imaging studies may be recommended.
Men are generally evaluated by a urologist, and may be best evaluated by those with a special interest or fellowship training in infertility, also sometimes referred to as Male Reproductive Medicine. Similar to the female evaluation, a urologist will ask the male about his history including childhood issues, prior surgery on the male genital system, exposures, and so forth. Unlike the female evaluation, however, the first laboratory test is generally a semen analysis. Sometimes the patient is referred to the urologist in the setting of an abnormal semen analysis.