There are many factors that can lead to an injured spine such as aging, improper body mechanics, trauma and structural abnormalities. Chronic pain is a condition that generally requires a team of health professionals to diagnose and treat.
Discectomy or Microdiscectomy
An open discectomy is the most common surgical treatment for ruptured or herniated discs of the lumbar spine. When the outer wall of a disc, the annulus fibrosus, becomes weakened, it may tear allowing the soft inner part of the disc, the nucleus pulposus, to push its way out. This is called a disc herniation, disc proplapse or a slipped or bulging disc. Once the inner disc material extends out past the regular margin of the outer disc wall, it can press against very sensitive nerve tissue in the spine. The disc material can compress or even damage the nerve tissue, and this can cause weakness, tingling or pain in the back area and into one or both legs.
An open Discectomy uses surgery to remove part of the damaged disc and thus to relieve the pressure on the nerve tissue and alleviate the pain. The surgery involves a small incision in the skin over the spine, removal of some ligament and bone material to access the disc and the removal of some of the disc material.
Laminectomy is surgery that creates space by removing the lamina. The lamina is the back part of a vertebra that covers your spinal canal. A laminectomy enlarges your spinal canal to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves. This pressure is most commonly caused by bony overgrowths within the spinal canal, which can occur in people who have arthritis in their spine. The laminectomy is the complete removal of the lamina.
A laminotomy is a type of spinal surgery that involves the partial removal of a lamina, the lamina is the part of a vertebra that helps create bony arch to protect the spinal cord. The laminotomy is performed through an incision down the center of your back over the area of the herniated disc. Your muscles are moved to the side so your doctor can see the back of your vertebrae. Once the correct vertebra has been located, your doctor will cut a small opening through the lamina bone on the back of your spinal column. The nerve roots are moved out of the way so the problem disc can be located. A laminotomy removes a portion of the lamina.
A foraminotomy is a type of spine surgery performed to decompress on a spinal nerve root. The procedure refers to the spine’s foramen; the nerve passageways through which the nerve roots exit the spinal column. A foraminotomy involves an incision through the skin and muscle to reach the spine. The muscles may be dissected or retracted using an endoscope or tubular retractor. Bone spurs, thickened ligaments and debris are removed using a drill or other special cutting instruments. Removing these tissues from the neuroforamen increases the space for the nerve root.
In a disk replacement, worn or damaged disk material between the small bones in the spine is removed and replaced with a synthetic or artificial disk. Your spine is made up of bones called vertebrae that are stacked on top of each other. Disks between the vertebrae work like cushions to allow the vertebrae to rotate and move without the bones rubbing against each other. The goal of the procedure is to relieve back pain while maintain more normal motion than is allowed with some other procedures.
Spinal fusion is surgery to permanently connect two or m ore vertebrae in your spine, eliminating motion between them. Spinal fusion involves techniques designed to mimic the normal healing process of broken bones. During this procedure, your surgeon places bone or bonelike material within the space between two spinal vertebrae. Metal plates, screws and rods may be used to hold the vertebrae together, so they can into one solid unit.